Anti-Semitic tropes were always present within what Travis View calls QAnon’s “big tent” conspiracy theory. Accusations of financial manipulation are frequently placed on prominent Jewish figures like George Soros and the Rothschild family. The adrenochrome theory –which supposes that the so-called “deep state” harvests the blood of trafficked children to obtain adrenochrome in order to sustain a youthful appearance—is highly reflective of the age-old medieval blood libel conspiracy theory accusing secretive Jewish groups of harvesting blood from Christian children (Lavin, 2020). Despite these examples, popular QAnon influencers and the conspiracy theories they peddled largely avoided overt anti-Semitism. Following the events of January 6th, 2021, in which a mob of violent protesters stormed the U.S. Capitol in an attempt to stop the certification of the 2020 presidential election, QAnon influencers were largely de-platformed from popular social media sites such as Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube. Attempting to salvage their following, these figures migrated to more obscure, less-regulated platforms like Gab, Parler, and especially Telegram (Argentino et al, 2021). One such influencer –GhostEzra– sustained only a modest following on Twitter, but quickly grew his Telegram following to the largest among his fellow influencers; currently boasting over 330,000 subscribers. In mid-May of 2021, GhostEzra began producing virulently anti-Semitic and pro-Nazi content that resonated well with his vast Q-pilled following.
The formation of far-right hybrids (QAnon Proud Boys, QAnon III%, QAnon fascists, etc.) in the wake QAnon’s mass-exodus from mainstream platforms was well-noted in a February report published by the International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation (Argentino et al, 2021). But GhostEzra’s brand of anti-Semitism seemed to enjoy a wide appeal, and reminded me of something one of my supervisors said to me while I was interning for UN-CTED: that one does not “simply read Mein Kampf and become a Nazi.” In other words, the mere introduction of content does not explain away a follower’s adherence to it. Therefore, the purpose of this article is twofold: 1.) provide a framework that explains why QAnon adherents might be receptive to GhostEzra’s particular brand of overt anti-Semitism, which may also assist in the early identification and deplatforming of similar posters and 2.) offer some potential avenues for containing QAnon narratives in order to prevent them from taking an explicitly anti-Semitic turn. It is important to note that this is a qualitative, top-down study of the narratives employed by GhostEzra, based on current knowledge about QAnon, anti-Semitism, and adherence to conspiracy theories. This study lacks a bottom-up analysis of the receptivity to said narratives, and is cause for further study. That being said, this article offers some initial approaches to prevent QAnon adherents from migrating toward virulent anti-Semitism.
Hess’s “Conversion” & Cultural Memory
Prominent Nazi party politico Rudolf Hess provides a useful historical anecdote to guide this analysis. In a speech given on May 14th, 1935, to the German-Swedish Society in Stockholm, Hess stated:
“I myself was until then not an anti-Semite, but on the contrary defended Jews based on the usual historical theory against their adversaries and persecutors. The facts of 1918 and later were so eye-catching that I was forced to convert to anti-Semitism, even though inwardly I was rather reluctant to revise my hitherto conviction about the innocence of persecuted Judaism.”
This quote first caught my attention in a paper describing anti-Semitism as a “religion” in a sense proposed by Clifford Geertz: as a 1.) system of symbols 2.) acting to establish powerful, long-lasting moods and motivations by 3.) forming conceptions of general order of existence and 4.) clothing these perceptions in such an “aura” of factuality that 5.) these moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic. Through this understanding of anti-Semitism, the authors claim that ideas generated in any one set of anti-Semitic arguments take on a sense of “objectivity” and thus allow them to extend beyond their original context. Anti-Semitic ideas are effectively embedded within a shared “cultural memory,” which generates a sense of moral compulsion to listen and engage with the “authoritative” claims of the past (Lange & Grossman, 2019). Lange and Grossman attribute much of this to biblical sources as well as other ancient and medieval Christian texts, and these examples will be revisited later in this article.
However, Hess’s anecdote likely reflects an engagement similar to that experienced by GhostEzra’s subscribers. Lange and Grossman most notably argue that Hess’s statement presents what appears as a desire to maintain his belief in the innocence of Jewish people, claiming that it took significant “facts” to alter this perception. While Hess presented this as a conversion made rationally, Lange and Grossman argue (and I agree) that the use of the phrase “eye-catching” suggest a transformation much more reliant on emotions evoked by a demanding cultural memory of anti-Semitism. Thus, it is this religious-like compulsion of cultural memory that lays the foundation for accepting anti-Semitic beliefs, ultimately guided to fruition by certain “eye-catching facts” that serve a role as proof, regardless of their inherent falsities.
Same Theories, New Culprits
The possession of antecedent conspiracy theory beliefs leaves individuals more susceptible to accepting others, especially if those theories overlap or coincide in some way (Sunstein & Vermuele, 2009). Thus, a QAnon follower, well-exposed to the idea that a “deep state” cabal is controlling the world, is simply and sadly pre-disposed to accepting similar theories that fit this worldview. Therefore, it’s not surprising that a poll by Morning Consult found that 49% of QAnon supporters agreed with claims present in the infamous Protocols of the Elders of Zion, an insidiously fabricated document created in early 20th century Russia which promulgated the idea that a cabal of Jewish elitists controlled the world (Halvorsen, 2021). This is not to claim that 49% of QAnon followers are in-fact virulently anti-Semitic or pro-Nazi, but it is a spectacular example of how holding beliefs about an overarching “deep state” can be easily co-opted and applied to different contexts.
GhostEzra frequently promoted a popular 12-hour long documentary very similar in content to Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Like its predecessor, it too presents a completely falsified narrative about a Jewish cabal in control of world events throughout the modern era. However, the videography models any ordinary documentary one might find on Netflix or Hulu– complete with “expert” testimony, witnesses, pictures, and flashy infographics to illustrate the conspiracy theory. Mirroring the appearance of credible information outlets is a timeless method employed by conspiracy theorists (Barkun, 2013), and adds additional “proof” to implicate a Jewish cabal as the infamous “deep state.” It also includes other details that likely resonate with QAnon followers; the most notable being references to Rothschild banking, conspiratorial forces underlying John F. Kennedy’s assassination, and depicting the perpetrators of this global conspiracy as “pedophiles” — all within the first thirty minutes of the pseudo-documentary’s first part.
Within this larger overarching theme of “deep state” control, GhostEzra included several other conspiracy theories to compliment his broader narrative; much like the broader QAnon milieu’s “big tent” structure. More popular conspiracy theories often took the spotlight, including COVID-19 anti-vaxxer messaging that promulgated the idea that COVID-19 vaccines were harmful or tools for control; or “stop the steal” which supposes that the 2020 presidential elections were subsequently “stolen” from the former President Trump. While untrue, these are indeed the most widely believed conspiracy theories circulated across U.S. far-right milieus. One poll conducted by Yahoo News and YouGov shows 37% of unvaccinated Americans believing that covid-19 vaccines are more harmful than the virus (Lonas, 2021). Public Religion Research Institute also performed a study pertaining to elections, showing that 61% of white evangelical protestants and 19% of all Americans either completely or mostly agree that the 2020 presidential election was stolen (PRRI, 2021).
However, GhostEzra included more obscure conspiracy theories, such as “flat-Earth” which takes the position that government elites are lying about the shape of the Earth; or “U.N. invasion” which assumes that the United Nations intends to invade and take over the U.S. This is a testament to the wide-net casted by GhostEzra’s content, trying to capitalize on a wide range of antecedent beliefs –on any “foot in the door” of conspiracy theories. However, two conspiracy theories within his repertoire take on particularly unique and compelling forms: “white replacement” and what he refers to as “transgenderism.”
“White Replacement” & “Transgenderism”
“White replacement,” also known as the “great replacement” or “white genocide,” is a racist conspiracy theory suggesting that white people in Western countries are being replaced through immigration, integration, abortion, and violence against white people, often (but not always) purported to be facilitated by a Jewish cabal (Davey and Ebner, 2019). This particular conspiracy theory took on some prominence within the Trump campaign, vis-à-vis rhetoric concerning sanctuary cities, migrant caravans, border protection (or more often, lack thereof) and portraying immigrants as violent criminals. Transphobia is closely related to “white replacement,” in the sense that transgender people are viewed as a threat to the “strength” of the white race. White nationalists, such as Andrew Joyce claim that “undermining” what it means to be male or female ultimately “undermines the healthy concept of family,” and that when group embracing this concept feels “undermined, it leads them closer to genocide” (Greenesmith & Lorber, 2021). This idea of “preserving” a “white, straight, nuclear family” is the glue which binds the larger far-right spectrum.
GhostEzra’s content raises both “white replacement” and transphobic narratives, but approaches them in certain ways distinct from explicitly white supremacist or neo-Nazi propagandists. Firstly, unlike the vast majority of other outlets for such content, GhostEzra abandons overt racism and blames existing racial tensions solely on a Jewish cabal. It’s important to recognize that a portion of GhostEzra’s following is in-fact overtly racist and demonstrate this regularly in his comment section. But given GhostEzra’s start as Q influencer, the absence of overt anti-Semitism and racism in other Q influencer feeds, and his success in maintaining a majority of his massive following after a hard switch to anti-Semitism, the absence of overt racism is indeed a notable parallel. For examples, one graphic suggested that terms like “racist” or “sexist” were manufactured by Jewish intellectuals; another asserted that the Nazis were more racially inclusive than history suggests using misleading photos of colonial troops for other European imperial figures (see below). Frequently, he will ask “where is this war on whites really coming from” and lament about white allies of the Black Lives Matter movement being “misled” into believing a Jewish machination. One post even shows Malcolm X at a speaking engagement, with a quote about Jews perpetuating censorship in the media.
A potential explanation for GhostEzra’s absent racism alongside explicit anti-Semitism is the fact that it uniquely satisfies the social psychological motive to maintain a positive image of self-identity or one’s own group. Social psychological motives are desires that can influence people to adopt conspiracy theories when non-conspiracy explanations are not sufficient or available. Douglas, Sutton, and Cichoka identify three specific categories of these motives: epistemic, the desire for accuracy and certainty; existential, the desire for security and control, and social, the desire to main a positive imagine of oneself or group (Douglas et al, 2017). In other words, overt racism is often viewed as a social taboo (and rightfully so), and blaming heightened racial tension (as a result of George Floyd’s murder, increased anti-immigrant rhetoric emanating from the Trump campaign trail, etc.) on a sinister third party simplistically explains away a legacy of proven systemic white supremacy in America. It offers a way for adherents to express dissatisfaction with and engage “white replacement” without necessarily out-grouping neighbors, co-workers, friends of color, or immigrants who they have come to understand as friendly, decent, or relatable.
GhostEzra similarly circulates a host of transphobic content and explicitly lamented the “infiltration” of what he called “evil transgenderism” into “every aspect of our society.” This sort of overt condemnation and demonization of transgender people is well in-line with other sources of far-right propaganda. GhostEzra often challenges the gender identification of notable and visible figures, such as politicians or their wives, OANN news anchors, Olympic athletes, and even called into question some hyper-sexualized portrayals of female celebrities (see below). This phenomenon is well-practiced in QAnon’s, at both the “grass-root” level and by other influencers. This wide-scale dissemination appears to be an attempt to greatly enhance the scope of this perceived “crisis,” playing on epistemic desires for certainty and existential desires for security. In essence, this likely drives up uncertainty as to the extent of the impact of “transgenderism” on society, and imbues a sense of urgency concerning its spread.
For QAnon followers, accusing the “deep state” of facilitating sympathy for transgender people in order to undermine the nuclear family is hardly a fresh concept. However, instead of co-opting previous theories and simply pinning blame on a Jewish cabal’s machinations, GhostEzra bundled so-called “transgenderism” into the traditions of Judaism itself, claiming that its tenets are contained within the Talmud. The Talmud does in-fact recognize the existence of intersex people to a certain extent, specifically forming six independent classifications. Rabbi Elliot Kukla and Reuben Zellman propose that this was simply a response to a relatively common problem highlighted by the Intersex Society of North America: that one out of every one to two thousand infants are born with traits that are not easily classifiable as simply “male” or “female,” and that modern medical procedures “solve” this challenge for the sake of “cultural,” as opposed to physical, health (Kukla & Zellman, 2007). However, GhostEzra’s conception of so-called “transgenderism” posits this as a Jewish plot designed to weaken the straight, white, nuclear family. This particular belief, of course, is completely unfounded in the Talmud or Rabbinical traditions overall.
Christianity & Anti-Semitism
It’s no secret that Christianity, particularly Evangelicalism, is highly represented within QAnon’s following. Not only are QAnon conspiracy theories simply present and circulating within Christian communities (Dinulescu, 2021), but there are several overlapping features between Christian myths and QAnon conspiracy theories. For example, the narrative that posits former President Trump as a lone warrior whom nobody understands or believes, but is fighting the “good fight against evil” is highly reminiscent of the Biblical narrative of Christ (Rogers, 2021). Similarly, Q followers may view “Q” as a messianic figure revealing sacred truths (Dinulescu, 2021), and the overarching anticipation of “the Storm” heavily mirrors the end-times apocalyptic worldview laid-out in revelations (Dappergander, 2021). More broadly, however, QAnon “runs on the tracks that religion has already put in place” (Rogers, 2021). That is to say that QAnon is a belief system comparable to organized religion and one whose followers describe their mission in quasi-religious terms; thus, the primary parallel between Christianity and QAnon is ultimately one’s own faith(Dinulescu, 2021). The fact that GhostEzra has been identified as an Evangelical Christian named Robert Smart (Backovic et al, 2021) is ultimately no surprise.
The belief that the “deep-state” worships Satan is also widespread throughout QAnon lore, and it seemingly serves to posit the evil cabal as the antithesis of good Christian values. This belief is also rooted in the “Satanic Panic” of the 1980’s, in which accusations of Satan worship and subsequent child abuse resulted in groundless indictments and convictions of schoolteachers and childcare workers (Lavin, 2021). However, the belief that Jews are Satan worshippers is a conspiracy theory that traces further back than “Satanic Panic,” into ancient and medieval Christianity. The foundation of this false belief lies in the accusations of deicide leveled against the Pharisees in scripture– that the Jewish leaders of Jerusalem essentially murdered Christ.
Returning to the earlier example, Lange and Grossman credit the roots of antisemitic “cultural memory” to Biblical sources, with the Gospel of John 8:37-47 as its most infamous, reading:
37 “I know that you are Abraham’s descendants, but you seek to kill Me, because My word has no place in you. 38 I speak what I have seen with My Father, and you do what you have seen with your father.”39 They answered and said to Him, “Abraham is our father.” Jesus said to them, “If you were Abraham’s children, you would do the works of Abraham. 40 But now you seek to kill Me, a Man who has told you the truth which I heard from God. Abraham did not do this. 41 You do the deeds of your father.” Then they said to Him, “We were not born of fornication; we have one Father—God.” 42 Jesus said to them, “If God were your Father, you would love Me, for I proceeded forth and came from God; nor have I come of Myself, but He sent Me. 43 Why do you not understand My speech? Because you are not able to listen to My word. 44 You are of your father the devil, and the desires of your father you want to do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks from his own resources, for he is a liar and the father of it. 45 But because I tell the truth, you do not believe Me. 46 Which of you convicts Me of sin? And if I tell the truth, why do you not believe Me? 47 He who is of God hears God’s words; therefore you do not hear, because you are not of God.”
Lange and Grossman analyze this claim throughout ancient and medieval history, offering examples such as John Chrysostom’s Adversus Judaeos sermons in the city of Antioch, which reference John 8:37-47, further dichotomizes the worldviews of Christians and Jews as inhabitants of different realms (heavenly and satanic, respectively) and calls for violence against Jews. This view solidified into a standard motif in medieval times, demonstrated by propaganda materials such as The Frankfurt Jews’ Sow, Aaron: Son of the devil in the Forest Roll of the County of Essex, and Agobard of Lyon’s treatise De cavendo convictu et Societate Judaica. The Nazis also employed this motif in their propaganda literature, such as Elvira Bauer’s picture book “Trust No Fox in a Heathland and No Jew with his Oath.” The opening poem of the book is titled, quite explicitly, “The Father of the Jews is the Devil” (Lange & Grossman, 2019).
GhostEzra frequently and explicitly recycled the deicide narrative and accused Jews of such Satan worship in his own Telegram channel. He often quoted scripture, and some of his choices demonstrate clear attempts to provide Biblical justifications for anti-Semitism, and relatedly separate Christianity from its roots in Judaism. For example, he posted a picture of a quote from John 8:44, stating “You are of your father, the devil, and the lusts of your father you will do. He was a murderer from the beginning.” Even more expressly, he quoted Revelation 3:9, which references a “Synagogue of Satan.” Of course, put into context, the authors of scripture identified themselves as Jewish and “synagogue” merely refers to a place of worship (as the term “church” did not yet exist in this context). However, GhostEzra circulated an additional graphic of what he believes the “Synagogue of Satan” is; unapologetically depicted as the hierarchical structure of our “invisible world government” and extensively uses both Judaic and Satanic symbols side-by-side. Similarly, he posted an excerpt of a documentary, which re-enacted John 8:37-47. Brief glances at the comment section show that this particular attempt to portray the Pharisees (and more broadly, the Jews) as Satan worshippers was well-received in GhostEzra’s following.
Popular culture also plays a role in perpetuating this particular narrative of Jews as Satan worshippers. Michael Barkun, in his foundational book Culture of Conspiracy, claimed that conspiracy literature is rife with what he called “fiction-is-fact” assertions; where fictional products like films or novels are asserted to be accurate, factual, representations of reality (Barkun, 2013). In this context, one such film that claims popularity in Christian circles is Mel Gibson’s Passion of the Christ, which visits Jesus’s execution at the hands of the Romans and more relevantly, the Pharisees. It’s worth noting that Gibson and his other films are quite popular within QAnon circles, and are often used to create different types of content depending on the context. The film contains graphic and gruesome depictions of Jesus’s torture and death, and includes the story of Barabbas; a violent criminal supposedly elected to be released from Pontius Pilate’s custody instead of Jesus, and often criticized for anti-Semitism (GhostEzra actually uses this clip in his Telegram feed as well). More importantly, Gibson includes a portrayal of Satan (complete with a deranged baby with the face of a 40-year-old man) making frequent appearances and quietly manipulating the Pharisees throughout the film. While GhostEzra referenced the film a handful of times in his Telegram posts, it is also possible that (given the 2004 release date) the film offered some basis for the future acceptance of these broader beliefs— “teeing up” individuals to view Jews as agents of Satan.
Many scholars have also connected this more traditional projection of Jews as Satan worshippers to the modern image of Jews as depicted in the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, particularly Norman Cohn in his book Warrant for Genocide (Cohn, 1966). Also relevant to this analysis of GhostEzra’s content, Jeffrey Woolf’s continued investigation into this concept connected medieval Christian anxiety regarding the depth of Jewish knowledge and conspiracy to the literature of the Talmud and the Qabbalah (Woolf, 2012). Michael Barkun referred to this concept as “stigmatized knowledge;” that is, information that they (the powerful) do not want you to know about (Barkun, 2013). In this case, the claim that the Talmud contains some form of secret knowledge used to undermine and control society is no doubt refuted by secular and religious scholars alike, but forms the basis for the projection of Jews as a conspiratorial entity (Woolf, 2012). GhostEzra referred to these works as the source of various conspiracy theories, especially “transgenderism” as described previously. Similarly, he also posted pictures of high-ranking politicians (such as Florida Governor DeSantis or former President George Bush) either holding or reading from a book which he claimed is the Talmud (when in reality, it’s either photoshopped or the view of the book is obscured), thus claiming that these figures are sympathetic or members of a supposed Jewish conspiratorial elite.
Johannes Heil also commented on the evident similarities between modern and medieval anti-Semitic conspiracy theories, but noted the most significant difference: the secularization of conspiracy theories in modernity, a process he called “desacralization” (Heil, 2012). Heil attributed this process to the development of a set of assumptions as the broader narrative is constantly and continually re-told, the religious element of Jews vs. Christians ultimately became implicitly embedded and focused more on “worldly” evidence of Jewish “criminality.” This is also highly reflective of Lange & Grossman’s concept of anti-Semitism as a religion in and of itself, reinforced by Christian cultural memory (Lange & Grossman, 2019). However, GhostEzra seems to revitalize these more explicit narratives in his own content by highlighting the narrative of deicide, re-contextualizing Biblical verses to justify anti-Semitism, re-injecting sentiments of “stigmatized knowledge” that facilitate a conspiracy within the Talmud and Qabbalah, and leaning on at least one parcel of popular culture for additional support.
Why It Matters & What We Should Do
The primary cause of concern regarding the circulation of these virulently anti-Semitic conspiracy theories (in my mind, anyway) is radicalization to self-activated violence. QAnon narratives have already produced several criminal/violent incidents since 2017, motivated by a perceived “enemy” and complete objection to alternative information (Garry et. al, 2021). The risk of violent incidence potentially increases with the addition of overt anti-Semitic narratives, as Jewish communities and the people who inhabit them are much more visible and accessible “soft-targets” for potential attacks, as opposed to “Democrats” or simply the “deep-state.” One review found that in almost every case of a deadly, far-right terrorist attack in the U.S. from the 1980’s onward, the perpetrators believed in an anti-Semitic conspiracy theory (Byington, 2019). The attacks on synagogues in Poway, Pittsburgh, and Halle (in Germany) are more recent instances of anti-Semitic conspiracy theories intersecting with “white replacement” narratives and spurring self-activated violence (Allington, 2021). While a vast majority of adherents to such conspiracy theories are unlikely to engage in an act of violence or terrorism, the size of the violent minority grows along with the number of overall believers.
One disturbing PRRI study published in May 2021 showed that 15% of Americans believe in a Satanic cabal, 20% believe in a “storm” scenario, and an additional 15% believe that “patriots” will have to engage in violence to “set things straight” (PRRI, 2021). This is an alarming pool of QAnon and QAnon-adjacent adherents which could be drawn to the same anti-Semitic pathway narratives laid out in this paper. Additionally, belief in the continued promise of a Trump reinstatement and subsequent “storm” appear to be wavering among some adherents, and this will likely increase as time passes; possibly stimulating some desire to take matters into one’s own hands. In addition to all of this, GhostEzra has issued his own violent rhetoric via Telegram with a startling number of respondents agreeing.
Sadly, GhostEzra has operated with near impunity throughout the Summer of 2021, despite two particular setbacks independently implemented in an effort to slow the spread of his attractive content. First, Apple and Google both censored the comment sections of his posts, where much of the more explicit (and sometimes gruesome) content circulated and recruitment to harder and more itinerant anti-Semitic Telegram channels took place. However, this censor is only effective on the applications offered by their particular stores, and GhostEzra has frequently advertised a bypass to accessing comment sections. His posts seemingly yield the same number of comments as previously. Second, Logically A.I. published a report “doxing” GhostEzra, revealing his identity as Florida resident Robert Smart (Backovic et al, 2021). Almost immediately, Smart’s channel lost approximately 5,000 subscribers, and he started laying-off the overtly anti-Semitic content. Doxing Q influencers has proven effective in the past, especially if it impacts the personal life of the individual in a negative way (such as losing their job). Unfortunately, over 300,000 subscribers have remained. Also, echoing Apple and Google’s censorship, his posts still retain views in excess of 200,000 and have maintained a robust comment section, and we should not rule out a potential return to posting virulently anti-Semitic content. Overall, even if current followers are disillusioned with GhostEzra’s channel, they will likely seek the same content elsewhere and look for it among harder and more defined neo-Nazi or Christian Identity chats and channels.
So, what can be done about GhostEzra and others who would seek to turn QAnon conspiracy theory followers into hardcore anti-Semites? Firstly, this paper was intended to provide a framework to identify similar narratives that ferry QAnon adherents to virulent anti-Semitism. Thus, the first step is to ensure that similar Telegram accounts, hosting similar narratives, are completely censored by popular app stores like Google or Apple before they gain a robust following. Censoring the entire channel, as opposed to the comment section, will prevent the channel host from redirecting followers to access Telegram by other means as GhostEzra has done. Still, this is a largely reactive measure and merely prevents easy online access to this sort of content. One cannot simply shut off the tap and expect the thirst to vanish.
This paper also identifies these narratives for the purpose of containing QAnon conspiracy theories and preventing them from taking an overtly anti-Semitic turn. Therefore, it is intended to enlighten practitioners, particularly educators and Christian religious leaders, as to the subjects in which they must focus counter-messaging, pre-bunking, and inoculation efforts. In particular, such campaigns should concentrate on reconciling the deicide narrative, thwarting historic accusations of Satan worship, and highlighting Christianity’s roots in Judaism. They should address and renounce the stigmatized knowledge surrounding rabbinic literature; the Talmud and Qabbalah specifically. More broadly, it should address the impacts of conspiratorial thinking as a whole– especially how previous narratives, already struggling to simplify and contextualize crises and complex phenomena, can be co-opted to justify hate.
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